A dental avulsion is the removal of a tooth from the socket due to damage to the periodontal ligament that should hold the tooth in place. Dental avulsions can occur as a result of severe trauma to the mouth and face, especially the upper incisors. Usually, dental avulsion cases are found in children aged 7--14 years which are caused by injuries while playing or playing sports.
In the above age group, bone growth is still ongoing so it is very important to maintain loose teeth and the surrounding tooth structure until bone growth stops around age 21. This is important to note as the goal of treating the avulsion tooth, not only so that the tooth can be returned to its place and function again. In a tooth avulsion, the periodontal ligament is torn, causing the tooth to fall out of its socket. Blood flow to the pulp (where the nerve fibers in the tooth) are cut off, leading to the death of the pulp tissue. Due to the death of the pulp tissue, the loose tooth will no longer grow and is very susceptible to infection if left untreated. The retention of the remaining periodontal ligaments in the tooth socket affects the impact of tooth avulsion. If you maintain hydration of the ligaments, the chances of survival and recovery are high. The risk of infection in the area of the loose tooth is also small. However, if the periodontal ligament is severely damaged and is not hydrated, an inflammatory reaction occurs which can further damage the tissue around the loose tooth. An inflammatory reaction can cause the bone to stick directly to the surface of the tooth root, causing the root of the tooth to be replaced by bone. This condition is referred to as replacement resorption.
Dental Avulsion Complications
Here are five dental avulsion complications you should be aware of:
1. Color Change
After the avulsion, the teeth may turn gray or pink in color due to pulp bleeding. Color change can also be caused by a temporary resorption process so that the color change that occurs is also temporary.
Whenever there is dead tissue in the human body, germs can easily develop there. Pulp tissue death almost certainly occurs after the tooth has fallen out of the socket, which in turn increases the risk of infection of the avulsed tooth and surrounding tissue in the tooth structure.
An abscess is a pus-filled sac caused by a bacterial infection. Tooth abscess can be found near the root of the tooth, or on the gum next to the tooth root. If left untreated, the infection from a tooth abscess can enter the bloodstream, causing fatal complications.
The inflammatory process can cause ankylosis, which is the attachment of bone to the tissue around the teeth. Ankylosis makes it difficult for the teeth to move. When tapped, the teeth make a metal-like sound. The location of the teeth can also be seen to be lower than the adjacent teeth. In baby teeth, ankylosis prevents eruption of the permanent teeth.
Tooth root absorption is the loss of cement and dentin due to absorption by bone cells, causing the tooth to become brittle and thin as its contents are lost. The absorption also makes teeth susceptible to infection and decay.